Family Names

Tuesday, 9 August 2016

From the 1816 Muster to the 1828 Australian Census

This is my belated contribution to the National Family History Month Blogging Chanllenge for Week One
William Carbis Snr. was one of three men who had been caught, convicted and transported together on the Ocean for Life to NSW in 1816.[i] Below is a summary of what has been found (to date) in the musters up to and including the 1828 Census for William Carbis Sen., William Carbis Jnr. and Francis Bassett.
As convicts sentenced to life in NSW one assumes that the sentence was forever and that their life was one of servitude. This however, is far from the true story. All sorts of arrangements were entered into that are not revealed in the annual convict musters. Below is a summary of what has been found (to date) in the musters for William Carbis Sen., William Carbis Jnr. and Francis Bassett.[ii]

There appears to be a change in William Carbis Snr status between 1817 and 1820 as he becomes a government servant. Why there has been a change in his status is not clear. Reasons could include the following possibilities, a clerical error, or he may have not coped as a settlerman in a foreign land and been re-classified as a government servant, or may have been considered to have lied about his trade (husbandman on marriage certificate vs seaman on arrest/convict records). By the 1819 convict muster it stated that he was sent to Mr. J. Campbell, along with 7 others serving life-sentence’s who had also arrived on the Ocean in 1816. Where he distributed to after that is not clear.
By the 1822 muster he was listed as a farmer. In order for this to occur he must have received his Ticket of Leave.[iii] The 1822 muster tells us that his son William Carbis Jun. is assigned to him as a government servant. In 1828 Francis Bassett, who received his ticket of leave in 1822, also joins William Snr. on his farm as a labourer.
In the muster documents it appears that William Snr. and William Jun. were both assigned to J. Campbell. However, there is some evidence to contradict this. In a letter written by William Carbis Jun. in application for his ticket of leave it appears he worked for either Win Bawn and/or C M Doyle (who both signed the supporting statement) from 1816 to 1822.[iv]

Figure 1 SRNSW, Colonial Secretary Correspondence Letters Received 1826-1934 Petitions, 4/2247, 34/205 excerpt concerning William Carbis petition for a Conditional Pardon

It is confusing to untangle the detail as many private arrangements could also be made. A man could spend part of the day working in servitude and the other part of the day working for himself as explained in the quote below.
“When male or female convicts arrived in Sydney or Hobart in the first fifty years, they were usually assigned to work either for the government or for a private individual. In the early years the government provided a food allowance for those who were privately assigned, while their masters obtained the benefit of their work. Until tighter regulations were introduced, both privately and publicly assigned convicts were allowed to work for themselves in the afternoons, earning an income. In effect, part of the day was their own. Some lived in accommodation supplied by their masters, while many others lived in their own housing.”[v]

In conclusion, we know that between 1816 – 1828 William Carbis Senior was a government servant, although he may have been a settlerman for a short time after arrival in 1816. He may have worked both as a government servant to someone, (yet to be identified), part of the day, and for himself as some sort of farmer in the afternoon. By 1821 he is a farmer possibly after receiving his Ticket of Leave (the copy of which is yet to be located) in the same year. His son who had been working as a government servant for either Win Bawn and/or C M Doyle came to work for him. It would also seem that Francis Bassett may also have worked for him in 1822 after receiving his Ticket of leave for a short time before going to Richmond.[vi] The 1828 gives us a wonderful insight across the whole of NSW for both convict and non convict persons living in Australia.

This article in part is based on a previous article authored by me that appeared at https://www.ourfamilypast.com/article/home/2072/haa007-intro-william-carbis that was prepared for coursework related to the UTAS Family History Diploma
 

[i] "Cornwall Assizes," Royal Cornwall Gazette, Falmouth Packet & Plymouth Journal, 22 April 1815, p. 4, col. 1; digital images, British Library Newspapers (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/ : accessed 21 Jun 2016), The British Newspaper Archive.
[ii] Muster and Census records summarised:- Ancestry, "New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entries in 1816 for William Carbis (p.53/1, Line 5, image 104 & 105 of 525) & William Carbis (p.53/1, Line 6, image 104 & 105 of 525); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 3; Ancestry, "New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entries in 1817 for William Carbis (p.61, Line 8, image 113 & 114 of 565), William Carbis (p.61, Line 9, image 113 & 114 of 565) & Francis Bassett (p.34, Line 1, image 63 & 64 of 565); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 3.; Ancestry, "New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entries in 1819 for William Carbis (p.83, Line 22, image 164 & 165 of 898) & Wm Carbis Jnr (p.83, Line 23, image 164 & 165 of 898); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication Class: HO 10; Piece: 1/1 Year 1788-1819; Ancestry, "New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entries in 1820 for William Carbis 1 (p.94, Line 1, image 177 & 178 of 549) & William Carbis 2 (p.94, Line 1, image 177 & 178 of 549); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 12. The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Ancestry, "New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entries in 1821 for William Carbis (p.90, Line 14, image 171 & 172 of 478) & William Carbis Junr (p.90, Line 15, image 171 & 172 of 478); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 15,The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Year 1821; Ancestry, "New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entry in 1822 for Williiam Corbis (p.71, Line 30, Image 141 of 685); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 36; The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Ancestry, "New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 Jun 2016); Entry in 1825 for William Corbis (p.117, Line 15, image 229 of 697); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Piece 19; The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Ancestry, "1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy)," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 Jun 2016); Entry # 511 for Francis Bassett (p.12, Line 7, image 23 of 663); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Ancestry, "1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy)," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 Jun 2016); Entry # 573 for Francis Bassett (p.63, Line 3, image 121 & 122 of 382); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Ancestry, "1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy)," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 Jun 2016); Entry in 1828 Alphabetical listing C-D for # 340 for William Carbiss or Carbett (p.14, Line 7, image 29 & 30 of 459); Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.; Ancestry, "1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (Australian Copy)," database and images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 Jun 2016); Entry #335 William Carbiss or Corbett (p.np# line 23, image 221 of 292); Surnames A-C. Original data: New South Wales Government. 1828 Census: Householders’ returns [Population and Statistics, Musters and Census Records, Census, Colonial Secretary]. Series 1273, Reels 2551-2552, 2506-2507. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia; & Johnson, Keith A., and Malcolm R. Sainty. 2001. 1828 Census of New South Wales. Sydney Library of Australian History, CD ROM edition. Entries for William Carbiss Jnr #C0340, .& Francis Bassett # B0573
[iii] Note according to the NRNSW website there is Ticket of Leave No. 2003 for William Carbis Snr Refer to index that cites SRNSW, NRS 12188, Bound manuscript indents 1788-1835, Fische 634 [4/4005] Entry for William Carbis page 2; However a “copy of [4/4003-19] ...items not available electronically (source " Series Detail ". 2016.Investigator.Records.Nsw.Gov.Au. Accessed June 10 2016.” (http://investigator.records.nsw.gov.au/Entity.aspx?Path=\Series\12188.))
[iv] SRNSW, Colonial Secretary Correspondence Letters Received 1826-1934 Petitions, 4/2247, 34/205
[v] Bruce Kercher, The Unruly Child: A History of Law in Australia (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1995), pp. 22-42
[vi] Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Entry 1825 for Francis Bassett (image 49 of 697) Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51)

6 comments:

  1. I'm so glad you posted this Sandra. It's great to meet a fellow UTAS student. Your post also demonstrates that whilst we might find our ancestor's on a record, it's not necessarily all black and white or the complete truth.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi Sandra, I am enjoying the NFHM blogging challenge posts. Learning new things with each read. I'm a previous UTAS Family History attendee too. I don't always source my blogging as well as you did. I figure out if they are super interested they will contact me and we can share. Looking forward to your next post. Fran

    ReplyDelete
  3. I'm particularly interested in your story, since I also have ancestors named Bassett, whom I think came from Cromwell. However, my William Bassett came to America in 1621, so if he is related to the ones you talk about--they were the ones who stayed behind.
    I have a suggestion on the letter where you say signed by both Mr. Bawn and Mr. Doyle. I am currently working with my 2nd great grandfather's letters, which were written in the 1840s in America. The format has the name of the recipient written on the left below the body of the letter, and the sender in larger letters on the right. It looks to me like that could be the case here. (The writing loos the same with the "Bawn" name written like the letter itself, and the Doyle one in a fancier style, but the y looks quite the same. Do you think that is possible?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Vera Marie,
      The points you raise on letter formatting during this are certainly very interesting.
      The image that I show of the letter is the bottom half of a single page of a multi-page of application for a conditional pardon. The application itself if addressed “To His Excellency Major General Richard Bourke” and followed by two statements appended directly to the bottom of the letter the last one being that signed by Win Bawn & CMDoyle.
      C.M.Doyle was a land owner in NSW and quite well known, I’m not sure who Win Bawn was although perhaps he was a manager of Mr Doyle on one of his properties or perhaps he managed his labour force of convicts.
      I’m not sure that the photo copy of the document I have is a copy of the original or a copy of a copy that was made at the time of the application by the clerk and put into the correspondence file – which might explain the consistency in the writing across various signatures.
      Thanks for your feedback, it always helps to hear the suggestions of other.
      Cheers Sandra

      Delete
  4. I'm particularly interested in your story, since I also have ancestors named Bassett, whom I think came from Cromwell. However, my William Bassett came to America in 1621, so if he is related to the ones you talk about--they were the ones who stayed behind.
    I have a suggestion on the letter where you say signed by both Mr. Bawn and Mr. Doyle. I am currently working with my 2nd great grandfather's letters, which were written in the 1840s in America. The format has the name of the recipient written on the left below the body of the letter, and the sender in larger letters on the right. It looks to me like that could be the case here. (The writing loos the same with the "Bawn" name written like the letter itself, and the Doyle one in a fancier style, but the y looks quite the same. Do you think that is possible?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Vera, how fascinating to be able to go back to 1621. I think I have hit a brickwall with my Bassetts once I get back to Cornwall. I can find baptisms but they don't have the mother's name and the father is listed as a pauper. I am writing up my findings at the moment and hope to publish a coherent summary in the next couple of weeks with the hope that perhaps someone will recognise the family and help me break through the brickwall

      Delete

Please feel free to leave a message