Family Names

Saturday, 8 May 2021

Lincoln Todman & Compulsory Cadet Training

 Universal Service Scheme, 1911–1929

“Between 1911 and 1929 Australian males aged between 18 and 60 were required to perform militia service within Australia and its territories”.[i]  “From 1 July 1911 cadet training was made compulsory as part of the system of peacetime conscription in Australia.” [ii] All male inhabitants of Australia including those that had resided Australia for six months and British subjects were expected to train under what was known as the Universal Service Scheme, 1911–1929 as follows: [iii]

  •         from 12 to 14 years of age, in the junior cadets;
  •          from 14 to I8 years of age, in the senior cadets;
  •          from I8 to 26 years of age, in the citizen forces.

Junior Cadets

“Boys aged 12–14 were registered as Junior cadets, although as a non-uniformed classroom-based activity their classification as ‘cadets’ is dubious.”[iv]  “Junior cadet training was entirely in the hands of school teachers, who had first been trained by military officers.   This early training was less military in nature than focused on physical drill and sport.  It also acted to inculcate boys with the notions of loyalty to country and empire.  At this age, uniforms were not worn, although there were schools with pre-existing uniformed cadet units, who continued to do so.”[v]

Lincoln was born in 1906 in Victoria, Australia.[vi]  He became part of the compulsory Junior cadets while attending Hawksburn State School at the age of 12 in 1918. As a junior cadet, he would have been involved in such activities as “squad drill, physical exercises, organised games, first aid and swimming.”[vii]

“Every school day at least fifteen minutes are spent in the training of junior cadets, the total hours of training for the year amounting to ninety. … All parts of the body are exercised in due proportions, and the lesson includes exercises calculated to develop mental control over muscular action.”[viii]

Senior Cadets in Quota 1906

“After a boy has completed his training in the Junior Cadets, he passes into the Senior Cadets, where he is trained during the period between the 14th and 18th years of age.”[ix]  “Senior Cadet training began each July for all eligible boys turning 14 at any time during the year”[x]

“Senior Cadet training operated on a ‘quota’ system with a quota defined as the set of boys who became eligible for registration when they turned 14 in any given year.”[xi]

Training took 64 hours a year and included “the following: Physical training, squad drill without arms, and semaphore squad drill with arms, care of arms, section of drill, musketry instruction and exercises, company drill, range practise. There is allotted to each senior cadet for range practise, field practice and matches, 150 rounds of ammunition per year.”[xii] [xiii] The program had been modernised and was being supplemented with sport by 1920,  “Youths and boys who were bored mentally and wearied physically by squad drill extending over several hours are finding pleasure in the recreational exercises and improved means of physical culture now offered to them. … The young soldier, therefore, will be instructed, developed and entertained in many ways useful in training, not only for the military purposes but also for citizenship.”[xiv]

At fourteen Lincoln he moved onto the Senior Cadets of Area 14AB (Prahran) on 27 January 1920 and trained in area 14 AB(Prahran).[xv] The following year in 1921 there was a major re-organisation of Australia’s military forces, as part of this process the 14th Battalion, an infantry battalion of the Australian Army was raised again in 1921 as a part-time unit of the Citizen Forces based in Victoria.”[xvi] The new battalion was based in the southeast Melbourne area in Victoria and drew its manpower from three previously existing Citizen Forces units which included Lincoln’s group the 14th infantry Regiment.[xvii]

Lincoln was promoted to Corporal on 21 May 1821 and successfully completed 4 years of training between 1921 and 30 June 1824.[xviii] At the time Lincoln joined the scheme it was at its height and held some 99,000 members parading at school locations or drill halls across the country.[xix]

Citizen Air Force - 1925 to 1927

Lincoln transferred to the Citizen Air Forces, Number 1 Squadron at Point Cook, on 7 September 1925. As part of Lincoln’s training, he would have participated in an annual training camp.

Photographer unknown, Lincoln Todman with friends, Citizen Forces Annual Training Camp, between 1925 - 1927, Point Cook, Victoria, Australia. [T072] (Lincoln on the righthand side of the tent pole) 

On 1 July 1927 with the rank of fitter Armourer, he was moved to the Non-effective list of the Citizen Air Force at his own request for two years. Why this request was made is unclear, he was due to return to the Citizen Air Force in 1929, although if he did or not is also unclear as there are no entries in his personnel file to indicate what happened.

Sepia Saturday: Using Old Images As Prompt for New Reflections –  Prompt 269 

WikiTree Link Lincoln James Todman

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[i] National Archives of Australia: Fact Sheet 160 Universal military training in Australia, 1911-29, https://www.naa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-05/fs-160-universal-military-training-in-australia-1911-29.pdf accessed 6 May 2021

[ii] [Stockings, C. (2008). Australian Army Cadets. In The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 May. 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.ezproxy.slv.vic.gov.au/view/10.1093/acref/9780195517842.001.0001/acref-9780195517842-e-95.]

[iii] Johnston, E.N. The Australian System of Universal Training for Purposes of Military Defense citing  Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, Vol. 6, No. 4, Military Training: Compulsory or Volunteer? (Jul., 1916), pp. 113-133 Published by: The Academy of Political Science  URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1193283 Accessed: 05-05-2021 05:17 UTC page 116

[iv] Stockings, C. (2008). Australian Army Cadets. In The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 May. 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.ezproxy.slv.vic.gov.au/view/10.1093/acref/9780195517842.001.0001/acref-9780195517842-e-95.

[v] State Library of South Australia, Children and World War 1: Cadets – Cadet Training, https://guides.slsa.sa.gov.au/c.php?g=410371&p=2794665 accessed 6 May 2021

[vi] Birth Certificate of Lincoln James Todman, born 20 July 1906, Registrar of Birth, Death and Marriages, Victoria, Australia, 298/1906

[vii] 1916 'NEWS OF THE DAY.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 5 January, p. 6. , viewed 05 May 2021, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155126810

[viii] 1907, 'The Training of Junior Cadets.', The Lone hand W. McLeod], [Sydney viewed 7 May 2021 http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-419318852

[ix] Johnston, E.N. The Australian System of Universal Training for Purposes of Military Defense citing  Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, Vol. 6, No. 4, Military Training: Compulsory or Volunteer? (Jul., 1916), pp. 113-133 Published by: The Academy of Political Science URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1193283 Accessed: 05-05-2021 05:17 UTC page 127

[x] Craig A.J.Stockings, “The Torch and the Sword, A History of the Army Cadet Movement in Australia 1866-2004 Thesis 2006, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE ACADEMY page 94, citing Notes of Lectures by Lieutenant Colonel J.G. Legge (1911). CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4880 accessed http://unsworks.unsw.edu.au/fapi/datastream/unsworks:4394/SOURCE01?view=true  8 May 2021

[xi] Craig A.J.Stockings, “The Torch and the Sword, A History of the Army Cadet Movement in Australia 1866-2004 Thesis 2006, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE ACADEMY page 72, citing Notes of Lectures by Lieutenant Colonel J.G. Legge (1911). CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4880 accessed http://unsworks.unsw.edu.au/fapi/datastream/unsworks:4394/SOURCE01?view=true  8 May 2021

[xii] Johnston, E.N. The Australian System of Universal Training for Purposes of Military Defense citing  Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, Vol. 6, No. 4, Military Training: Compulsory or Volunteer? (Jul., 1916), pp. 113-133 Published by: The Academy of Political Science  URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1193283 Accessed: 05-05-2021 05:17 UTC page 130

[xiii] 1920 'CADET TRAINING.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 10 August, p. 8. , viewed 06 May 2021, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203069539

[xiv] 1920 'Arms and the Nation', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 11 August, p. 6. , viewed 06 May 2021, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article242309459

[xvi] https://amp.blog.shops-net.com/21802897/1/14th-battalion-australia.html accessed 8 May 2021 [note “The 14th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. Originally raised in 1914 as part of the Australian Imperial Force for service in World War I, the battalion served at Gallipoli initially before being sent to France where it served in the trenches along the Western Front until the end of the war, when it was disbanded.]

[xviii] National Archives of Australia: Air Services Branch CA 778; Department of Defence [III], Central Office - Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff - Personnel (ACPERS-AF), CA 46; RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Lincoln James Todman Service Number: 205018 (NAA: A9301, 205018) [page 10]

[xix] Stockings, C. (2008). Australian Army Cadets. In The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 May. 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.ezproxy.slv.vic.gov.au/view/10.1093/acref/9780195517842.001.0001/acref-9780195517842-e-95

Tuesday, 23 February 2021

From Tightrope Walker to Photographer

 Richard Ellis professional photographer

Richard Ellis was born 27 January 1842. He was the son of James Ellis (shoemaker) and Sarah Jardine (from Pounds Passage John Row).[i]  James and Sarah already had 5 children and later would have 7 more. Richard was baptised seven years later on 4 March 1849 in St Mark Myddleton Square, Clerkenwell, Middlesex, with two of his younger siblings, Charles and Emily.  According to Richard’s record of baptism, at the time the family were residing at number 2 of an indecipherable street in Myddelton Square, Islington.[ii]

According to the 1851 census, at the age of 9 Richard was living with his parents at 5 Garden Row, Finsbury, in Middlesex, England. His older siblings were also at this address, and all but one were working as servants. His father was a Boot & Shoe Maker.[iii]

Photographer Richard Ellis, studio self-portrait, 1900, Malta https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_Ellis.jpg accessed 22 February 2021

Richard started work with James and Sara Conroy as a circus performer, possibly as an apprentice tightrope walker. He travelled with the Conroys throughout Europe. During a trip to Paris, James Conroy and Richard Ellis became interested in photography and attended the Daguerre Institute. They later travelled throughout Italy and Sicily, but events related to the Italian unification led them to move to the nearest British colony, the Crown Colony of Malta. James, Sarah Conroy, their 1 year old baby Adelaide Anceschi, and Richard Ellis arrived in Malta on 9 April 1861 on a ship called Capitole[iv] [v]

Photographer Richard Ellis, The Ellis Studio on Kingsway (Republic Street) in the late 19th century, 1 January 1900, malta, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_Ellis,_The_Ellis_Studio_on_Kingsway,_Valletta.jpg

After arriving in Malta, James Conroy set up a photographic studio in Senglea, with Richard acting as his assistant/apprentice. Richard married Alphone Curmi, aged 17, on 9 February 1864 in Malta, he was 18 years of age.[vi] [vii] Richard set up his own photographic studio in 1871 in Valletta, Malta.

Two examples of Negative sleeves from the Richard Ellis Photographic Studio

Richard died on 23 December 1924 in Valetta, Malta.[viii]

Photographer Jan Beamish, Examining Richard Ellis’s original photographic equipment camera, The Richard Ellis Archive Malta, 26 September 2012 [T299]

Sepia Saturday: Using Old Images As Prompt for New Reflections – Prompt 558 

Blogpost Meta Data

The URL for this post is: https://ancestralresearchjournal.blogspot.com/2021/02/from-tightrope-walker-to-photographer.html originally published 23 February 2021 

 Copyright © 2021, Sandra Williamson

 Please comment on this post on the website by clicking the URL above and then the "Comments" link at the bottom of each post. Share it on Twitter, Facebook, or Pinterest using the icons below. Or contact me by email via the Contact Form on the Blog.

Further Reading

·         'Malta: The Richard Ellis Archive 1862-1924' https://britishphotohistory.ning.com/profiles/blog/show?id=2680769%3ABlogPost%3A15926 accessed 22 Feb. 21

·         Business today, The last of the Ellises,  Wednesday, 21 May 2008 http://archive.businesstoday.com.mt/2008/05/21/interview.html accessed 22 February 2021

·         https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ellis_(Maltese_photographer) accessed 20 February 2021

·         “Richard Ellis: The Man And His Legacy”,  Malta Independent, Sunday, 13 May 2012, 00:0  http://www.independent.com.mt/articles/2012-05-13/news/richard-ellis-the-man-and-his-legacy-310033 accessed 20 February 2021

·         Why Englishman Richard Ellis deserves a monument in Malta by Melanie Drury 30 December 2018  https://www.guidememalta.com/en/why-englishman-richard-ellis-deserves-a-monument-in-malta accessed 20 February 2021

·         Richard Ellis – the man, his times and his pictures by Marika Azzopardi 2012, ARTICLES, ISSUE 6 - 2012, LIBRARY, THESYNAPSE MAGAZINES, THESYNAPSE ONLINE https://cme30.eu/richard-ellis-the-man-his-times-and-his-pictures/  published on line January 16, 2020 accessed 20 February 2021

 Sources for Text

[i] General Register Office, England, Birth Certificate for Richard Ellis born 27 January 1842, the son of James Ellis (shoe maker) and Sarah Ellis formerly Jardin born at 2 Pounds Passage John Row GRO Reference: 1842 M Quarter in SAINT LUKE MIDDLESEX Volume 02 Page 273

[ii]  Baptism of Richard Ellis baptised 4 March 1849, born 26 May 1842 the son of James (shoemaker) and Sarah Harriet Ellis residing at 2 [unable to read address] Place, Myddelton Square St Mark, Islington parish register for baptisms 1849-1917 entry 36, page 5, year 1849; Ancestry.com. London, England, Church of England Births and Baptisms, 1813-1917 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Citing London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; Reference Number: p76/mrk/003 Year: 1849-1871

[iii] 851 English Census HO107/1521/33/42

[iv] Wikipedia contributors, "Adelaide Conroy," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adelaide_Conroy&oldid=977331355  (accessed February 22, 2021). Citing Casha, Kevin (2016). Photography in Malta – The History & The Protagonists. Malta: BDL books.

[v] Wikipedia contributors, "Richard Ellis (Maltese photographer)," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Ellis_(Maltese_photographer)&oldid=987486323 (accessed February 22, 2021).

[vi] Public Registry Office of Valletta, Malta, Marriage Certificate Richard Ellis & Alfonsa Curmi (13 February 1864)

[vii]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ellis_(Maltese_photographer) accessed 20 February 2021

[viii] Death Certificate Richard Ellis, Malta